Javan Rhino

(Rhinoceros sondaicus)
IUCN RED LIST: Critically Endangered

The Javan Rhino is the rarest of the rhino species with 72 animals currently surviving only in Indonesia.

Javan rhinos are now found only in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park, where the population appears to have stabilized, largely because they are guarded by Rhino Protection Units. There has been no poaching in Ujung Kulon in more than 20 years. Because of this, their population has been slowly but steadily increasing and IRF is working with local partner YABI to create more suitable habitat for them so their population can continue to grow. The last Javan rhino in Vietnam was found shot with its horn removed in 2010.

  • The Javan Rhino is found only in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park in west Java.
  • Javan rhinos appear to be more adaptable feeders than other rhino species: in the tropical rain forest where the species now survives, it is a pure browser, but it possibly was a mixed feeder (both browse and grass) in other parts of its historic range. Biologists have identified more than 300 different species that comprise their diet.
  • Longevity is unknown, but Javan rhinos probably live to 30-40 years.
  • Gestation is unknown but is presumed to be approximately 15-16 months, as in other rhinos. Inter-birth intervals are unknown, but mothers probably give birth to one calf approximately every 2-3 years.
  • Javan rhinos are solitary in nature and are rarely seen.
  • Females do not appear to have prominent horns.
Current Javan Rhino Numbers and Distribution

Currently there are 72 Javan rhinos surviving in in one country, Indonesia.

CITES: Appendix I

Common Names

Javan rhinoceros

Asian lesser one-horned rhinoceros because of the Javan's smaller size.

Scientific Name and Origin

Rhinoceros sondaicus

“Rhinoceros” from the Greek “rhino”, meaning "nose" and “ceros”, meaning "horn" and “sondaicus” (Latin -icus indicates a locality) referring to the Sunda islands in Indonesia, "Sunda" meaning "Java"

Physical Characteristics


  • Weight: 2,000 - 5,060 pounds (900 - 2,300 kg)
  • Height: 5 - 5.5 feet (1.5 - 1.7 m) tall at the shoulder
  • Length: 6 - 11.5 feet (2.0 - 4.0 m)


Javan rhinos possess a single horn 10 in (25 cm) long, at least in males; females have a smaller or no horn.

Other Features

Gray, hairless, skin folds look like armor plates.